FOR STUDENTS OF ADVANCED LEVELS
POUR LES ETUDIANTS DE NIVEAUX AVANCÉS
PARA LOS ESTUDIANTES DE NIVELES AVANZADOS
|EVER||am is are||do does||have has|
"SIMPLE SUBJUNCTIVE" CONJUGATION: BE DO HAVE
This conjugation indicates a command Do something! Be something! Have something! or that it is important or unimportant that something be something, that something do something or that something have something.
For all verbs except "Be" it is the same word as the "Simple Ever" conjugation.
It is the second part for the infinitive (to be, to do, to have), for the modals [can could will would may might shall should ought must] (can be, can do, can have, etc.) and for subjunctive clauses using "that" (that one be, that one do, that one have) for all verbs.
The following two conjugations are the only conjugations that can be the verb for a subject of a sentence ( Sentence = Subject + Simple Verb). The other conjugations are used to describe the subject of a sentence or the objective of a sentence.
"SIMPLE EVER" CONJUGATION: AM IS ARE DO DOES HAVE HAS
This conjugation indicates reality for all times (the present, the future, anytime, sometimes, occasional time, now, today, this year, this century, etc.) except the past.
Only the verb "be" has three forms of the "simple ever" conjugation ( am, is, are). All other verbs have two forms of the "simple ever" conjugation (do does, have has, go goes , etc.): With the letter "s" added to the simple form (does, has, goes, jumps, sits, stands, etc.) one speaks of a subject that is one person or one thing. The simple form, without the "s" (do, have, go, jump, sit, stand, etc.), is for all other subjects.
I am. One is. You are. We are. Others are.
I do. One does. You do. We do. Others do.
I have. One has. You have. We have. Others have.
"SIMPLE PAST" CONJUGATION: WAS WERE DID HAD
I was. One was. You were. We were. Others were.
Only the verb "be" has two forms of the "simple past" conjugation was. were. All other verbs have only one "simple past" conjugation did. had. ran. jumped. sat. etc.
This conjugation indicates reality for all times before this moment (a moment ago, yesterday, last year, etc.).
Every sentence must have either the "simple ever" or the "simple past" conjugation of its verb. The other conjugations may be placed near the subject or near to verb or near the objective to describe them, but the other conjugations do not indicate present, past, future, etc.
Only these two conjugations "simple ever" and "simple past" indicate time.
"PARTICIPLE" OF CONTINUATION" : BEING DOING HAVING
...being something... ...doing something... ...having something...
This conjugation indicates continuation.
It does not indicate the present, the past, the future, or any time.
It can be used as a noun and subject (Running is fun.),
It can be used as the objective of a sentence (I like running.)
It can be used as an object of a preposition (...by running...).
It can be used as an object of an adverb (...when running...).
It can be used as an adjective to describe something that is continuing (...the flowing water...).
If it is used as a participle it does not follow have, has, had, having.
If it is used as a participle it follows am, is, are, was, were, be, been. (One is running. One has been running. etc.).
"PARTICIPLE OF COMPLETION" CONJUGATION: BEEN DONE HAD
...been something... ...done something... ...had something...
This conjugation indicates completion, achievement, and it follows verb conjugations am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, have, has, had, having.
If it follows the "simple ever" conjugations (am, is, are, have, has) it indicates completion in the present, future or any time.
If it follows the "simple past" auxilliary verbs (was, were, had) it indicates completion in the past.
If it follows the "participle of continuation" (being, having) or the "simple subjunctive" (be, have) it may indicate anytime, past, present, future, etc.
It can be used as an adjective (...broken window... ...window broken... There is a broken window. There is a window broken.
It can be used as an adverb or appositive adjective.
Broken, the window fell. The window fell, broken.
"Been" does not follow am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been.
"Been" follows only have, has, had, having.
THE INFINITIVE PHRASE
The infinitive phrase uses the word "to" and the "subjunctive" conjugation of a verb ( to be, to do, to have). It indicates potential.
The infinitive phrase does not indicate the present, past, future, etc.
It can be the subject of a sentence ( To be is to exist.)
It can be the objective of a sentence (One wants to be somewhere.)
It may act as as adverb to describe or to explain the sentence (To do something, he studied and learned.